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Authors

 

CONCEPT OF TRIBUTALISM: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF S. AMIN, J. HALDON AND H. H. STAHL‘S APPROACHES

 

 

Nerijus Babinskas

 

Vilnius University, E-mail: nerijus.babinskas@if.vu.lt

 

 

Abstract:

By this article the author wants to revive the discussion about Marxist schemas of social development and their applicability for constructing models of universal history. The viewpoints of three scholars are presented in the current text: Samir Amin‘s who is known in the Western historiographical tradition as the main creator and promoter of the concept of tributary mode of production, John Haldon‘s who has paid much attention to the above-mentioned concept and has dedicated an entire book to this issue, Henri H. Stahl‘s who created an original alternative approach to the issue of tributalism. The author rejects J. Haldon‘s concept of „mode of production“ as being too narrow. In fact J. Haldon identifies the mode of production with the mode of exploitation. The author proposes a wider definition of the mode of production which is based on the analysis of Karl Marx‘s texts. According to the author, the most important elements of mode of production are exploitative subject (it is defined by property of conditions of production, which realises as the social power) and productive/obligatory unit which can be manifested as a household of an individual direct producer or as a community. The author proposes the following classification based on his conception of a mode of production:

1.     A proprietor of land is a monarch/state and the productive/obligatory unit is the community (of Asiatic/Slavonic type);

2.     A proprietor of land is a monarch/state and the productive/obligatory unit is the household of an individual direct producer;

3.     Proprietors of land are private landowners and the productive/obligatory unit is the community (of Asiatic/Slavonic type);

4.     Proprietors of land are private landowners and the productive/obligatory unit is the household of an individual direct producer.

The most important conclusions of the author‘s are as follows:

1.     H. H. Stahl‘s statement that there were alternatives in the social development of precapitalist societies are definitely reasonable.

2.     Keeping in his mind the controversies between the conceptions of tributalism the author emphasizes that for the moment the question of the typology of antagonistic precapitalist societies remains open; so further researches and discussions are necessary.

3. As a point of departure for further researches and discussions the author proposes his classification of antagonistic precapitalist societies based on the criteria of an exploitative subject and a productive/obligatory unit.

 

Abstrakcija:

Šiuo tekstu autorius siekia atnaujinti diskusija apie marksistiniu socialines raidos schemu pagristuma ir pritaikomuma modeliuojant visuotine istorija. Straipsnyje pristatomi triju autoriu požiuriai: labiausiai Vakaru istoriografineje tradicijoje žinomo tributalizmo/tributarinio gamybos budo koncepcijos kurejo ir propaguotojo Samiro Amino, išsamiai tributalizmo problematika nagrinejusio britu kilmes istoriko Johno Haldono (jis paraše visa knyga skirta šiam klausimui), originalia alternatyvia tributalizmo koncepcijos versija pateikusio rumunu sociologo Henri H. Stahlio. Autoriui nepriimtina pernelyg redukuota J. Haldono gamybos budo samprata, kai gamybos budas tapatinamas su eksploatacijos budu. Remdamasis paties K. Marxo tekstu analize autorius suformuluoja platesne gamybos budo samprata, kurios svarbiausiais komponetais yra eksploatacinis subjektas (ji nusako gamybos salygu nuosavybe, kuri realizuojasi kaip socialine galia) ir gamybinis/prievolinis vienetas, kuris gali reikštis arba individualaus tiesioginio gamintojo ukio, arba bendruomenes pavidalu. Remdamasis šia samprata autorius pateikia ikikapitalistiniu gamybos budu principine klasifikacija:

1. Žemes savininkas yra valdovas/valstybe ir gamybinis/prievolinis vienetas yra (azijinio/slaviško tipo) bendruomene;

2. Žemes savininkas yra valdovas/valstybe ir gamybinis/prievolinis vienetas yra individualus tiesioginio gamintojo ukis;

3. Žemes savininkai yra privatus ir gamybinis/prievolinis vienetas yra (azijinio/slaviško tipo) bendruomene;

4. Žemes savininkai yra privatus ir gamybinis/prievolinis vienetas yra individualus tiesioginio gamintojo ukis.

Svarbiausios autoriaus išvados yra šios:

1.     H. H. Stahlio nuostata apie žmonijos ikikapitalistines socialines evoliucijos alternatyvuma yra visiškai pagrista.

2.     Aptartu alternatyviu tributalizmo koncepciju prieštaringumas parodo, kad ikikapitalistiniu antagonistiniu gamybos budo tipologijos klausimas ir XXI amžiaus pradžioje išlieka atviras, todel visiškai galimos esamu koncepciju revizijos, tolesnes diskusijos ir tyrimai.

3.     Tolesniu tyrimu ir diskusiju išeities tašku siulome musu pateikta gamybos budu klasifikacija paremta eksploatacinio subjekto ir gamybinio/prievolinio vieneto kriterijais.

 

Rezumat:

Cu acest articol, autorul îsi propuse sa redeschida discutia despre modelele marxiste de dezvoltare sociala si despre aplicabilitatea acestora în construirea unor modele de istorie universala. Sunt prezentate si analizate, în acest context, viziunile a trei cercetatori: Samir Amin, John Aldon si Henri H. Stahl. Primii doi au scris extensiv asupra conceptului de tributarism în relatie cu mijloacele de productie, în vreme ce Stahl a propus  o abodare alternativa, respingând conceptul de 'mijloc de productie'. Pornind de la aceste trei viziuni, autorul acestui articol avanseaza propria interpretare si abordare asupra conceptelor de 'tributarism' si 'mijloace de productie'.     

 

Keywords: Marxism, tributalism, mode of production, obligatory unit, exploitative subject


07.Babiskas.pdf

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