HE BALTIC SEA AND THE BLACK SEA: SECURITY CHALLENGES AND VULNERABILITIES AFTER THE COLD WAR
Mihai Sebastian Chihaia
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Ia?i, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper was presented at the Sixth international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, Historical memory, the politics of memory and cultural identity: Romania, Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea Region in comparison, hosted by the Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies, Faculty of History and Political Sciences of Ovidius University of Constan?a and International Summer School of The University of Oslo, Norway, May 22-23, 2015. Supported by a grant from Iceland, Lichtenstein and Norway, The EEA Fund for Bilateral Relations, contract no. 910/20.03.2015.
After the end of the Cold War and the disintegration of the USSR, the international system changed, becoming a unipolar one. Not only did this fact bring a diffusion of power and the reaffirmation of smaller actors/regional powers, the enlargement of several international organizations such as NATO and the EU, but also prompted regional transition and integration.
This paper will focus on two regions that are fundamental in the security environment of Europe and its neighborhood: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Both areas suffered important changes after 1990. Furthermore, the areas mentioned have been a rendezvous point for several elements such as the shifting balance of power, political ambitions of smaller states, transit point for global trade routes (Scandinavia, Baltics and the Black Sea) and energy security issues.
The article will take into account the concerns of the actors, outlining their security challenges and vulnerabilities as well as identifying similarities between countries from the two regions addressed. The comparison will further address the issues the regions faced after the end of the Cold War such as the emergence of new countries, political and economic transition with emphasis on cooperation initiatives and integration in NATO and EU. The main aim of the article will be to frame the similarities and differences of the political and security environment of the two regions.
The structure of the paper goes as follows. I will start by laying out a theoretical framework centred upon the concept of security and what it involves and after that I will introduce and define the two regions discussed in the article, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea areas and outline the context each of them faced after the end of the Cold War. The next section will address the threats to the stability of the regions, creating the frame for the last part of the article which will make a comparison between the Baltic and the Black Sea areas.
Sfâr?itul Războiului Rece ?i dezintegrarea Uniunii Sovietice au marcat transformarea sistemului interna?ional de la bipolar la unipolar. Această transformare a dus la o reafirmare a puterilor regionale pe scena interna?ională, la extinderea organiza?iilor interna?ionale ?i a marcat începutul unui proces de tranzi?ie ?i integrare regională.
Acest articol se axează pe două regiuni deosebit de importante pentru mediul de securitate european, care au suferit transformări importante după 1990: Marea Neagră ?i Marea Baltică. Mai mult, acestea reprezintă un punct de întâlnire pentru mai mul?i factori cum ar fi balan?a puterii, ambi?iile politice ale statelor mai mici, rutele globale comerciale ?i chestiuni din sfera securită?ii energetice.
Lucrarea va puncta provocările la adresa securită?ii ?i vulnerabilită?ile existente, scopul fiind realizarea unei compara?ii între cele două regiuni. Compara?ia va aduce în discu?ie aspectele cu care s-au confruntat cele două regiuni la sfâr?itul Războiului Rece, ?i anume emergen?a noilor actori, tranzi?ia politică ?i economică, ini?iativele de cooperare regională ?i integrarea în organiza?ii precum NATO ?i Uniunea Europeană. Principalul scop al lucrării este acela de a scoate în eviden?ă asemănările ?i deosebirile mediului de securitate din cele două regiuni.
Articolul va debuta cu o parte teoretică centrată pe no?iunea de securitate, următoarea parte introducând cele două regiuni discutate ?i contextul existent după 1990. Demersul va urmări ulterior punerea în eviden?ă a provocărilor ?i vulnerabilită?ilor existente, pentru ca partea de final a lucrării să acopere similarită?ile ?i diferen?ele existente.
Keywords: regional security, Black Sea region, threats, Baltic Sea region, regional cooperation
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A aparut Norsk-Rumensk ordbok. Dictionar norvegian-roman, vol. 1, autori Arno Halvorsen si Crina Leon. Acesta poate fi consultat la biblioteca online a Asociatiei Romane pentru Studii Baltice si Nordice.
Dictionar norvegian roman vol 1