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THE BALTIC AND THE BIRTH OF A MODERN ENGLISH MARITIME COMMUNITY: THE MUSCOVY COMPANY AND NAUTICAL CARTOGRAPHY, 1553-1665

 

Alistair Maeer

Southeastern Oklahoma State University, Email: amaeer@se.edu

 

 

Abstract:

English merchants and navigators began developing their skills in the late sixteenth century to reach Baltic shores and in the process birthed a distinct English nautical charting tradition which continued to service and reflect English interests for over a century. Specifically, the efforts of the Muscovy Company and the emergence of a distinct master-apprentice relationship of chart makers within the Drapers’ Company instigated the emergence of a modern maritime community in England replete with the financial structures, ships, and skills necessary to encompass the globe. As a result of various setbacks in the late-sixteenth century, English merchants and mariners shifted from coastal trading ventures to direct long-distance overseas commerce. This transformation was initiated through the efforts of the Muscovy Company and its accompanying introduction of marine charts for navigating distant shores. The introduction and expansion of direct long-distance overseas trade and modern navigational techniques then spurred the creation of a domestic charting industry to service these English navigational needs, the Thames School of English marine charting. Born out of a close association with English commerce to the Baltic, members of the Thames School continued to produce nautical charts of the globe that reflected ever-expanding English interests until the early-eighteenth century. This paper argues that trade to and from the Baltic acted as a proving ground, the venue, within which both the origins of English long-distant overseas trade and nautical cartography emerged—two fundamentally necessary components for the Empire which followed.

 

 

Rezumat:

Comercian?ii ?i navigatorii englezi au început sa-?i dezvolte abilita?ile de a ajunge pe ?armurile baltice la sfâr?itul secolului al XVI-lea ?i astfel a luat na?tere o tradi?ie engleza distinctade cartografie maritima, care a continuat sa deserveasca ?i sa reflecte interesele engleze timp de peste un secol. Concret, eforturile Companiei Moscova ?i apari?ia unei rela?ii distincte maestru-ucenic în rândul cartografilor din cadrul Companiei Postavarilor au generat apari?ia unei comunita?i maritime moderneîn Anglia ce abunda în structuri financiare, nave ?i abilita?i necesare pentru a cuprinde globul pamântesc. Ca urmare a diferitelor obstacole întâmpinate la sfâr?itul secolului al XVI-lea, negustorii ?i marinarii englezi?i-au deplasat interesul de la negustoria de coasta catre comer?ul maritim extern pe distan?e lungi. Aceasta transformare a fost ini?iata prin eforturile Companiei Moscova ?i a fost înso?ita de elaborarea unor har?i maritime destinate naviga?iei catre ?armuri îndepartate. Introducerea ?i extinderea comer?ului extern direct pe distan?e lungi ?i a tehnicilor moderne de naviga?ie au stimulat ulterior crearea unei industrii na?ionale cartografice pentru a deservi aceste nevoi engleze de naviga?ie, ?coala Tamisa de cartografie maritima engleza. Nascuta dintr-o asociere strânsa cu comer?ul englez la Marea Baltica, membrii ?colii Tamisa au continuat sa produca har?i nautice ale globului ce reflectau interesele permanente engleze de expansiune pâna la începutul secolului al XVIII-lea. Aceasta lucrare sus?ine ca schimburile comerciale catre ?i dinspre Marea Baltica au ac?ionat ca un teren de încercare, în care î?i au sorgintea atât comer?ul extern de lunga distan?a cât?i cartografia nautica, doua componente fundamentale necesare ale imperiului care a urmat.

 

Keywords: Muscovy Company, Charts, England, nautical cartography

 


05. Maeer.pdf

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Seventh annual international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania. Good governance in Romania and the Nordic and Baltic countries

Nicolae Iorga Institute of History of the Romanian Academy, Romania
November 24-25, 2016

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Vol. 7, issue 2 of The Romanian Journal of Baltic and Nordic Studies has been published online. Please, access it free of charge here


10.03.2016

INTENSIVE LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE SUMMER COURSE
Starting: in groups: from 1st to 13th of August. Individually courses are held all summer.
Duration of the course: The Course runs for 4-6 academic hours per day, with Language practice for 44 hours and Lithuanian history, literature and ethnology for 6 hours.
Languages of instruction: English, Russian, French, Italian, Lithuanian.
Place: in the center of Vilnius – Gediminas ave. 26.
Certification: students will receive a Lithuanian language Summer Course Certificate.
Separate groups for beginner, intermediate, and advanced students are planned.
During the courses various cultural program are planned: excursions in Lithuania, degustation of traditional Lithuanian dishes, ethno cultural events, visiting some museums, creative workshops with famous Lithuanian artists.
More information: http://lingualit.lt/…/lithuani…/intensyvus-vasaros-kursai-1/
LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE SUMMER COURSE FOR CHILDREN
Time: 1-12 of August, in groups. All summer indivual courses takes place.
Starting: in group on August 1-12. Individual courses are held all summer.
Duration: 20 acad. hours (10 days, 2 acad. hours per day).
Explaining languages: English, Russian, Lithuanian.
Place: Gediminas ave. 26, Vilnius.
Certificate: at the end of the course every participant will get the LINGUA LITUANICA certificate.
Classes take place in small groups.
On Saturdays it is possible to go to excursions with parents.
More information: http://lingualit.lt/…/lithuanian-language…/kursai-vaikams-1/
Registration to the courses: you can register to the courses by the internet, email: info@lingualit.lt or directly coming to the institute Gediminas ave. 26, Vilnius.

7 octombrie 2015

A aparut Norsk-Rumensk ordbok. Dictionar norvegian-roman, vol. 1, autori Arno Halvorsen si Crina Leon. Acesta poate fi consultat la biblioteca online a Asociatiei Romane pentru Studii Baltice si Nordice.

Dictionar norvegian roman vol 1