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SWEDEN AND THE JACOBITE MOVEMENT (1715-1718)

 

 

 

Costel Coroban

 

“Ovidius” University of Constanta, e-mail: coroban_costel@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract:

During the second decade of the century of the Enlightenment, a short interesting episode occurred between the Kingdoms of Britain, Sweden and the Russian Empire. In the context of Swedens downfall as an imperial power, Charles XII, after the return from his stay in the Ottoman Empire, instructed his minister, Görtz, to surreptitiously journey to the Netherlands in search of finances. The purpose was to revitalize what was left of Swedens maritime power. The only ones interested in funding Charles XIIs fleet were the Jacobites. They were those English, Scots, Irish and Welsh who were still loyal to the dynasty of James II Stuart of England, exiled during the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689. James II having died in 1701, they now gathered around his son, Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender). In 1715-1716, the Pretender attempted to invade Britain in order to prevent the succession of George I of Hanover, but failed. Through the Swedish envoys in London and Paris (Gyllenborg and Sparre, respectively), Görtz tried to obtain an agreement from the Jacobites that money would be secretly loaned to Charles XII in exchange for Sweden helping a new Jacobite invasion. British counterintelligence was well aware of these negotiations. Eventually the government of George I arrested Gyllenborg, furthermore publishing his documents. This was done in the hope of internationally isolating Sweden, as the British Hanoverian monarch feared a Russian-Swedish-Jacobite alliance. The topic cannot be fully understood without taking in consideration the position of the Russian Empire, so a section of the article is also dedicated to the role played by Russia in this affair.

 

            Rezumat:

Un episod interesant a avut loc în relatiile dintre Marea Britanie, Suedia si Imperiul Rus în timpul celei de-a doua decade a Secolului Luminilor. În contextul decaderii puterii Suediei, regele Carol XII, la întoarcerea sa din Imperiul Otoman, l-a instruit pe principalul sau ministru, Görtz, sa întreprinda o calatorie în Tarile de Jos pentru a obtine împrumuturi. Scopul era revitalizarea puterii maritime a Suediei prin construirea unei flote performante. Singurii care au putut însa promite o finantare au fost iacobitii. Acestia erau englezi, scotieni, irlandezi sau galezi înca loiali familiei lui Iacob II Stuart al Angliei, exilata în timpul Glorioasei Revolutii din 1688-1689.  Iacob II a încetat din viata în 1701, sperantele iacobitilor îndreptându-se acum catre fiul sau, Francis Edward Stuart (cunoscut drept Batrânul pretendent). În 1715-1716 Francis Stuart a esuat într-o încercare de înlaturare a noului rege al Marii Britanii, George I de Hanovra. În aceste conditii, Görtz a încercat ca prin emisarii suedezi la Londra si Paris (Gyllenborg, respectiv Sparre) sa negocieze în secret, aparent fara stirea lui Carol XII, un împrumut de la iacobiti în schimbul ajutorului Suediei într-o viitoare invazie a Angliei. Scrisorile le fusesera interceptate asa ca guvernul britanic aflase de aceste planuri. A urmat arestarea lui Gyllenborg si publicarea scrisorilor sale, provocându-se astfel o criza cu scopul de a izola international Suedia. George I al Marii Britanii si Hanovrei în special s-ar fi temut de încheierea unei paci între Suedia si Rusia. O sectiune a articolului trateaza si rolul jucat de Imperiul Rus în aceasta criza, deoarece subiectul de fata nu poate fi înteles fara o privire Nord-europeana de ansamblu.

 

Keywords: Charles XII, Sweden, Jacobites, Britain, George I, Görtz, Gyllenborg, Sparre, Peter the Great


 04.Coroban.pdf

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Seventh annual international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania. Good governance in Romania and the Nordic and Baltic countries

Nicolae Iorga Institute of History of the Romanian Academy, Romania
November 24-25, 2016

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Vol. 7, issue 2 of The Romanian Journal of Baltic and Nordic Studies has been published online. Please, access it free of charge here


10.03.2016

INTENSIVE LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE SUMMER COURSE
Starting: in groups: from 1st to 13th of August. Individually courses are held all summer.
Duration of the course: The Course runs for 4-6 academic hours per day, with Language practice for 44 hours and Lithuanian history, literature and ethnology for 6 hours.
Languages of instruction: English, Russian, French, Italian, Lithuanian.
Place: in the center of Vilnius – Gediminas ave. 26.
Certification: students will receive a Lithuanian language Summer Course Certificate.
Separate groups for beginner, intermediate, and advanced students are planned.
During the courses various cultural program are planned: excursions in Lithuania, degustation of traditional Lithuanian dishes, ethno cultural events, visiting some museums, creative workshops with famous Lithuanian artists.
More information: http://lingualit.lt/…/lithuani…/intensyvus-vasaros-kursai-1/
LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE SUMMER COURSE FOR CHILDREN
Time: 1-12 of August, in groups. All summer indivual courses takes place.
Starting: in group on August 1-12. Individual courses are held all summer.
Duration: 20 acad. hours (10 days, 2 acad. hours per day).
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Place: Gediminas ave. 26, Vilnius.
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Classes take place in small groups.
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Registration to the courses: you can register to the courses by the internet, email: info@lingualit.lt or directly coming to the institute Gediminas ave. 26, Vilnius.

7 octombrie 2015

A aparut Norsk-Rumensk ordbok. Dictionar norvegian-roman, vol. 1, autori Arno Halvorsen si Crina Leon. Acesta poate fi consultat la biblioteca online a Asociatiei Romane pentru Studii Baltice si Nordice.

Dictionar norvegian roman vol 1