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ALTERATION OF THE ETHNIC DIVERSITY AND ETHNIC SEGREGATION INDEX IN LATVIA DURING THE FIRST AND SECOND INDEPENDENCE PERIODS

 

Ádám Németh, Guntis Šolks

 

 

Ádám, Németh: University of Pécs, Institute of Geography, Dept. of Human Geography and Urban Studies/Hungary, E-mail: nemethadam@gamma.ttk.pte.hu

Guntis, Šolks: University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences / Latvia, E-mail: guntis.solks@inbox.lv

 

Acknowledgments

This paper has been presented at the Third International Conference on Nordic and Baltic Studies: European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis hosted by the Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies, Târgoviste, May 25-27, 2012.

 

Abstract:

It is a well-known fact that the Baltic area is traditionally one of the most diverse regions of Europe in terms of ethnic concerns; we can observe in many settlements that four or even five religions have their own churches, cemeteries and at least as many ethnic groups are having their schools etc. Regarding geography literature, no generally accepted method has been applied yet to measure the population’s diversity and spatial segregation; in most cases only the number and ratio of ethnic groups were described.This research paper proposes a different approach: the adaptation of the so-called Simpson’s Diversity Index, based on probability theory and originally used by ecologists to measure biodiversity, to human geography.The study seeks the answers to: where, when, why and how has the Ethnic Diversity and Ethnic Segregation Index changed in Latvia during the first and second independence periods? What kind of spatial patterns are possible to observe on the basis of the transformation? The enormous data is processed by modern GIS software products and projected on thematic maps.

 

 

Rezumat:

Este binecunoscut faptul ca arealul Baltic reprezinta în mod tradi?ional una dintre cele mai diverse regiuni ale Europei în materie de provocari etnice; putem observa în numeroase a?ezari ca nu mai pu?in de patru sau chiar cinci religii î?i au propriile biserici, cimitire ?i cel pu?in tot atâtea grupuri etnice au propriile ?coli etc. În ceea ce prive?te literatura ?tiin?ifica geografica, nu s-a reu?it înca aplicarea unei metode general acceptate capabile sa masoare diversitatea popula?iei ?i segregarea spa?iala; în cele mai multe cazuri sunt descrise doar numarul ?i propor?ia minorita?ilor etnice. Aceasta lucrare ?tiin?ificaî?i propune o abordare diferita: adaptarea a?a-numitului Indice Simpson al Diversita?ii – bazat pe teoria probabilita?ii ?i folosit ini?ial de ecologi?ti pentru a masura biodiversitatea la domeniul geografiei umane. Studiul cauta un raspuns la întrebarile unde, când, de ce ?i cum s-a schimbat Indicele Diversita?ii ?i Segregarii Etnice în Letonia în timpul primei ?i al celei de-a doua perioade a independen?ei? Ce fel de trasaturi spa?iale sunt posibile a fi observate pe baza acestei transformari? Datele foarte bogate sunt procesare prin produse software GIS moderne ?i proiectate pe mape tematice.

 

Keywords: Latvia, ethnic, diversity, segregation, isolation, 20th century


04.Nemeth&Solks.pdf

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