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BOUT PAN-SCANDINAVIANISM. REFERENCE POINTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY (1815-1864)

 

 

Mircea-Cristian Ghenghea

“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University in Iași, E-mail: mcghenghea2010@yahoo.com

 

Acknowledgements

This paper is based on the presentation made at the Fifth international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania A piece of culture, a culture of peace, re-imaging European communities in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Black Sea regions, hosted by Valahia University of Târgoviște and the Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies, August 17-19, 2014. Supported by EEA Grants, contract no 4/22.07.2014.

 

 

Abstract:

At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th a sense of solidarity shared by the people of the Northern Europe appeared: Pan-Scandinavianism. First it had a certain impact at cultural and spiritual levels. In a narrower sense the term was used when referring to the possibility of creating a political union between the Nordic kingdoms during the middle decades of the 19th century.

Although it seemed that the political side of Pan-Scandianvianism had a good chance of accomplishing itself, especially after the Three Years War (1848-1851), the international context from the period that followed did not favour that plan. The collapse of the political Pan-Scandinavianism was in 1864 – the Second Schleswig-Holstein War. Sweden-Norway failed in helping Denmark against Prussia and Austria, despite the fact that King Karl XV was an advocate of Pan-Scandinavianism. Leaving this aspect aside, there were other internal difficulties of the Nordic states that Pan-Scandinavianism had to face, including the emerging nationalism. On a broader view, Pan-Scandinavianism appeared as an opponent of Panslavism and Pangermanism. Thus the dream of a unified Scandinavia was abandoned in the 19th century and Pan-Scandinavianism focused on cultural, scientific and economic cooperation.

 

Rezumat:

La sfârșitul secolului al XVIII-lea și la începutul celui de-al XIX-lea a apărut un sentiment de solidaritate împărtășit de locuitorii Europei nordice: panscandinavismul.Mai întâi a avut un anumit impact la nivel cultural și spiritual. Într-un sens mai restrâns, termenul a fost utilizat atunci când se făcea referire la posibilitatea creării unei uniuni politice între regatele nordice în deceniile de la jumătatea secolului al XIX-lea.

Deși se părea că latura politică a panscandinavismului avea o șansă de a se concretiza, mai ales după Războiul de trei ani (1848-1851), contextul internațional al perioadei care a urmat nu a favorizat acest plan. Colapsul panscandinavismului politic s-a produs în 1864 – al doilea război pentru ducatele Schleswig și Holstein. Suedia-norvegia nu a reușit să ajute Danemarca împotriva Prusiei și Austriei, în ciuda faptului că regele Karl al XV-lea era un susținător al panscandinavismului. Trecând peste aceste aspecte, au existat dificultăți interne al statelor nordice cărora panscandinavismul a trebuit să le facă față, inclusiv afirmarea naționalismului. Într-un plan mai larg, panscandinavismul a apărut ca un adversar al panslavismului și al pangermanismului. Astfel visul unei Scandinavii unificate a fost abandonat în secolul al XIX-lea, iar panscandinavismul s-a axat pe cooperarea culturală, științifică și economică.

 

Keywords:Pan-Scandinavianism, political unity, Schleswig-Holstein, nationalism, defensive formula.


12.GhengheaM.pdf

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